FLAOL - Dihydroquercetin (DHQ) – powerful antioxidant and signaling molecule.
During the last few decades, a flavonoid Dihydroquercetin has been extensively studied due to its wide spectrum of unique biological properties. Dihydroquercetin was discovered as a part of phenolic complexes derived from numerous plants. Evergreen trees, especially those from the family of Pinaceae are considered rich sources of dihydroquercetin. Larchwood saw logs become the main source for FLAOL - Dihydroquercetin (DHQ) extraction by pure organic solvents water and grain alcohol, making “vodka” mixture available for extraction without any chemical compounds, which may alter the native molecule form of DHQ. Such essential wastes serve an excellent friendly environmental base to obtain commercial volumes of FLAOL - DHQ.
On the role of DHQ (dihydroquercetin) in high plants the attention was paid quite long time ago due its properties to extend duralibility of trees where DHQ was found. Dihydroquercetin is a molecule mainly found in species of the genus Larix, Douglas Fir, Cedrus and Pseudotsuga. Dihydroquercetin has been described as an antifungal agent; yet, dihydroquercetin is mainly responsible for the high durability of the species mentioned above. Moreover, DHQ inhibited the hormone oxidase degrading activity, thus acting as plant growth regulator facility. In Russia and some CIS countries DHQ was registered and is used as the plant growth regulator with strong plant anti-stress features.
represents the native form of DHQ molecule found in nature, non-conjugated, water soluble, non racemic, non polymer, safe, bioactive and bioavailable, supported by important initial quality control tests in vitro (Total ORAC min 28,000 units per gram) and ex vivo (CAP-e min 10 units per gram).
A key fact that makes Quercetin and Dihydroquercetin very different products are their solubility properties. DHQ (FLAOL) is immediately available to protect living cells. Quercetin is not water-soluble and even though it has a higher CAP-e value when dissolved in ethanol (approximately 1,000), it cannot protect living cells without first having been dissolved in alcohol. NIS Labs, 2010.
Daily intake of 2 capsules with FLAOL can help to meet minimum 5,000 ORAC value per day recommended by some nutritionists, but actually achieves minimum 8,000 ORAC value per day. Some data suggest that many individuals are getting as low as 1,200 ORAC units or less per day. ORAC is considered by some to be a preferable assay to measure the scavenging capacity of antioxidants against peroxyl radical, which is one of the most common reactive oxygen species found in the body. FLAOL prevents oxidation by reducing the rate of chain initiation by free radicals, especially peroxyl eadical. DHQ scavenges initiating radicals and destroy them before oxidation is set in motion.
By substantial efficiency of hydrogen atom and electron transfer and by keeping metal ions tightly sequestered (metal-chelating agent), Dihydroquercetin – DHQ - FLAOL brings fundamental means of antioxidant defense against free radical-mediated tissue damage.
If we focus on the dominant chemical process in our body based on simple quantity, the true beneficial effect of antioxidants is not the selective elimination of damaging free radicals, but rather the enhancement of metabolism. This will increase the rate of consumption of oxygen, thus lowering the local oxidation potential and making oxidative damage less likely.
FLAOL supports cellular structure and cell metabolism. DHQ of native monomer form processes benefit results in both intracellular and extracellular environments. Studies in erythrocytes, mast cells, leucocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes have shown that DHQ renders cell membranes more resistant to lesions. DHQ can be distributed to different tissues and is taken up by red blood cells (RBCs), thereby increasing their antioxidant potential. RBC can uptake DHQ from oral cavity to portal vein and liver as well as there is a transport service for DHQ for RBC uptake, which is carried out by transport proteins, including glutathione pump. Due to the structure positioning of molecule with high potency to donate hydrogen atom, DHQ can penetrate the human erythrocytes easily and protect from oxidative damage (CAP-e assay by NIS Labs). FLAOL - Dihydroquercetin (85% monomer form) CAP-e assay as a cell-based antioxidant protection assay using erythrocytes to address the question of whether antioxidants in complex natural products enter the cytosol and contribute to the reduction of oxidative damage within the cell.
FLAOL - DHQ may act by increasing the stability of the erythrocyte membrane, exhibites high resistance of the erythrocytes against the oxidative stress and haemolysis produced by osmotic shock.
Researchers suggest that the stereo-chemical structure of native form of Dihydroquercetin facilitates its penetration into a lipid phase enable the flavonoid to act as a chain-breaking radical inhibitor in protein-lipid and lipid-lipid cellular environments. The effectiveness of antioxidant protection by flavonoids like in nature is related to their ability to interact and penetrate biomembranes causing changes in membrane structure and fluidity.
DHQ had been evaluated by different studies as the small-molecule regulator of signalling cascades as promising anti-inflammatory agent. The inflammatory enzymes (kinases) are activated by stresses of different origin and leads to the phosphorylation of a number of transcriptional regulators that can orchestrate a program of gene expression, including the upregulation of many transcription-factor genes. Like in nature, DHQ acts as uncoupling agent that inhibits oxidative phosphorylation. Most of the regulation of transcription by DHQ appears to involve inhibition of phosphorylation signaling cascades or specific kinases.
DHQ can modify the membrane directly by changing membrane fluidity or the phosphorylation state of lipids or proteins or indirectly via signaling cascade to change the membrane composition. The antiaggregatory and disaggregatory effects of flavonoids on human blood platelets also appear to be a function of altered membrane fluidity (Furusawa et al., 2003). DHQ also can modify the plasma membrane by altering the lipid composition.
One of the important ways in which FLAOL may limit the inflammatory plain is by preventing elevation of oxidized glutathione concentration and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio induced by inflammatory cytokines. DHQ shows its modulating activity when the receptor-stimulated production of peroxide (H2O2) also leads to the activation of all inflammatory protein kinase pathways, which inflicts oxidative damage and activates inflammatory signaling cascades inside the cells. DHQ - can increase body’ s stores of the powerful antioxidant glutathione, which in turn binds to and curbs the inflammatory effects of excess nitric oxide—a common marker of serious respiratory conditions like asthma, emphysema, and cystic fibrosis.
DHQ can enhance the production of glutathione, block the production of reactive oxygen species, and prevent the late influx of calcium, all of which are activities that prevent specific events in the cell death pathway.
DHQ is known to inhibit both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated proinflammatory protein release, which modulates the proinflammatory molecules that have been reported in many progressive neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), viral and bacterial meningitis, AIDS dementia complex, and stroke. DHQ is known to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) transcription factor, which has been implicated in anti-inflammatory response. DHQ works perfectly asinhibitor of deadly NADPH oxidase, the ROS generating system. By limiting NO availability and activating pro-inflammatory transcription factors, NADPH oxidases then promote vascular disease initiation and progression.
Only DHQ of native monomer, water soluble form like represented by FLAOL, can significantly activate Antioxidant Response Element. DHQ modulates chemopreventive genes through activation of Antioxidant Response Element. By inducing the expression of antioxidant defense enzymes, FLAOL has the potential to have long-lasting effects on cellular function. This, in turn, is highly beneficial to cells exposed to chronic oxidative stress under different pathological conditions.
The supplementation with FLAOL - DHQ helps to support attention, memory, mental performance, normalized sleep, releaved headache, decreased fatiquebility, led to the decrease in blood viscosity values, the reduction of pathological erythrocyte hyper aggregation and the improvement of erythrocyte deformability.
FLAOL helps maintain healthy blood viscosity and supports microcirculation on the capillary level. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels penetrating all our tissues and organs. Thousand kilometers of capillaries provide oxygen and all the required nutrients to body cells, reducing at the same time by-products of its activity. It is the border of a cell and a capillary where metabolism takes place.
FLAOL supports healthy blood cholesterol levels. The data indicate that DHQ inhibited the synthesis and secretion of a number of lipids, in addition to decreasing LDL and increasing HDL secretion. This supports the mode of action that DHQ, may represent a potentially important method of controlling atherogenesis. The confirmed statin-like activity of DHQ may lead to an alternative neutraceutical agent with combined hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties. The in vivo studies demonstrated improved glucose tolerance, lower insulin levels, lower triglyceride mass in tissues, lower plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and a decrease in serum LDL levels as the results of DHQ exposure.
SAFE: Given the physiological levels expected to be reached upon many lflavonoids intake of lipophilic nature, the results point at possible flavonoid–xenobiotic interactions affecting the toxicokinetic behavior of these xenobiotics, especially at the level of some important transport processes. FLAOL - DHQ hydrophilic or “water-lover” molecule’s nature possesses minor xenobiotic recognition being able to work friendly in both aqueous and lipid environments with minor toxycokinetics by comparing to lipophilicity.
In contrast to Quercetin and others flavonoids of lipophilic nature, Dihydroquercetin represents contra version mode of action, bioavailability with effect on parameters of antioxidant status, inflammation and metabolism in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo.